NOTE: All references
to page numbers in the following footnotes refer to pages
in the paperback edition of The Spirit of the Internet.
1. The concept of the evolution of human
consciousness is discussed in detail in the chapter titled
"Conscious Evolution and the Evolution
2. Ralph Abraham is a writer, lecturer,
and Professor of Mathematics at the University of California
at Santa Cruz. He has been active on the research frontier
of dynamics in mathematics since 1960, and in applications
and experiments since 1973. He has been a consultant on chaos
theory and its applications in numerous fields (medical physiology,
ecology, mathematical economics, psychotherapy, etc.) and
is an active editor for the technical journals World Futures
and the International Journal of Bifurcations and Chaos.
3. Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955) was
a Jesuit priest, paleontologist, and philosopher.
Chapter 1 A Place Called Cyberspace
1. Vinton Cerf is sometimes called
"the father of the Internet" because of his pioneering
work with ARPANET, the forerunner of today's Internet and
for his contributions to the development of TCP/IP, the Internet's
basic communications protocol.
2. In essence, the World Wide Web is
"superimposed" on the Internet. The "Addendum"
to this book describes this concept more fully.
3. Source, Inktomi Corporation, www.inktomi.com/webmap.
4. See page 178 for the rest of Gibson's
5. Found at www.whatis.com/cyberspa.htm.
6. Found at www.apnet.com/inscight/10131999/cybersp1.htm.
7. Found at www.webopedia.com/Internet_and_Online_Services/cyberspace.html.
8. Bruce Sterling's The Hacker Crackdown
(Bantam Books, 1993).
9. Mark Pesce is a leader in the development
of Virtual Reality computing.
10. An argument can be made that the
original "low tech" way people entered cyberspace
was by reading books. It is not uncommon to hear someone say
their mind was "lost" in a good book. What the high
tech of the Internet adds is the opportunity to interact with
other minds while "in" cyberspace and reading/discussing,
online, the same book.
11. See Howard Rheingold's The Virtual
Community (Addison Wesley, 1993) for an excellent overview
of this topic.
12. Found at http://webopedia.internet.com/TERM/v/virtual_reality.html.
13. From a paper found at www.telefonica.es/fat/epesce.html.
14. Information about the Contact Consortium
may be found at www.ccon.org.
15. See the chapter titled "The
Internet as a Chaotic Attractor" for a discussion
of the "reality" of nuclear physics.
16. Mark Pesce's "Ontos and Techne:
Incorporations and the Noosphere," found at www.hyperreal.org/~mpesce/d2k.html.
17. Galen Brandt is a writer, speaker,
musician, performer, and a leader in the field of Virtual
18. See www.cwru.edu/pubs/cnews/1999/12-2/vrtherapy.htm.
19. Publishing information regarding
Virtual Healing will be posted on the Matrix Masters web site
when it becomes available; examples here are from personal
correspondence with the author.
20. From Galen Brandt's Virtual Reality
as Healing Art (a panel discussion, SIGGRAPH 98).
21. Stuart Kauffman is a leading thinker
on self-organization and the science of complexity as applied
to biology. He was Professor of Bio-chemistry and Biophysics
at the School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, and
External Professor at the Santa Fe Institute. Professor Kauffman
was awarded a John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Fellowship
22. Stuart Kauffman's At Home in
the Universe, pp. 20-21 (Oxford University Press, 1995).
23. The Digital Biology Project is
dedicated to creating biologically inspired cyberspace. Their
web site, www.biota.org, provides a wealth of information
about this topic.
24. The Tierra web site may be found
25. See "The
Art of Steven Rooke" on page for a brief description
of how a computer can use genetic algorithms to simulate life.
26. Found at www.hip.atr.co.jp/~ray/tierra/whatis.html.
27. During the Cambrian period, about
550 million years ago, almost all of the major phyla found
in the Earth's biosphere first came into being. Only the vertebrates
arose somewhat later.
28. An interview with Bruce Damer by
Russ Spencer, found at www.digitalspace.com/papers/interviewruss.html.
29. For more information about artificial
life, see the web site of The Digital Biology Project at www.biota.org/org/vision.html.
30. William Gibson's Neuromancer
(Ace Books, 1984).
Chapter 2 The Internet and the Noosphere
1. John Hogue is an author and self-described
2. Albert Hofmann's first syntheses
of LSD also took place in 1938, although his famous bicycle
ride did not take place until 1943. Interestingly, it wasn't
until the 1960s that both Chardin's book and Hofmann's discovery
entered mainstream consciousness.
3. Vladimir Vernadsky (1863-1945),
a Russian scientist, was instrumental in establishing the
field of biogeochemistry.
4. Julian Huxley's "Introduction"
to Teilhard de Chardin's The Phenomenon of Man, p.
17 (New York: Harper & Row, 1959).
5. As our understanding and use of
genetic-altering technology improves, perhaps our species'
biological changes will take place at a much faster rate as
well. Of course, technology such as this is going to require
even greater and more rapid advances in consciousness if we
are to remain in control of our creations.
6. Teilhard de Chardin's The Phenomenon
of Man, p. 251 (New York: Harper & Row, 1959).
7. Chardin, Phenomenon, p. 20.
8. Teilhard de Chardin's "The
Formation of the Noosphere," Revue des Questions Scientifiques
(Louvain), pp. 7-35, January 1947, found in Teilhard de Chardin's
The Future of Man, pp. 165-166 (New York: Harper &
9. See page 140 for a description of
these new devices.
10. Chardin, "The Formation,"
11. Chardin, "The Formation,"
12. Chardin, "The Formation,"
13. Definition of "Gaia,"
The Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary, p. 566 (New
York: Oxford University Press, 1996).
14. Interview for bOING bOING #10,
found at http://deoxy.org/t_sunami. htm.
15. Richard Yensen, Ph.D., studied
psychedelic psychotherapy with Stanislav Grof, M.D. at the
Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. During his time there
he treated patients with substance abuse disorders, cancer,
and neurosis. He also trained other health professionals.
Currently, Dr. Yensen is the Director of the Orenda Institute.
16. Weston La Barre's "Hallucinogens
and the Shamanic Origins of Religion," in Furst, P.T.
(Ed.), Flesh of the Gods-the Ritual Use of Hallucinogens,
pp. 261-278 (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1972), quoted in
Richard Yensen's "Prologue," to Janine Rodiles'
A Prohibited Therapy - Biography of Salvadore Roquet,
17. Richard Yensen's "Prologue,"
to Janine Rodiles' A Prohibited Therapy - Biography of
Salvadore Roquet, 1998.
18. For a listing of current professional
studies in this field, see the web site of the Multidisciplinary
Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS), at www.maps.org.
19. At the time of this writing, the
U.S. Congress is considering legislation that will severely
restrict Internet access to information about entheogens.
Those with an interest in such subjects may want to download
this information to their personal computers while it is still
20. Jonathan Ott's The Age of Entheogens
& The Angels' Dictionary, p. 37 (Natural Products
21. Humphry Osmond's "A Review
of the Clinical Effects of Psychotomimetic Agents," Annals
of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 66(3): 418-434,
22. John Perry Barlow is a retired
cattle rancher, a lyricist for the Grateful Dead, and co-founder
and executive chair of the Electronic Frontier Foundation.
23. John Perry Barlow's Being in Nothingness:
Virtual Reality and the Pioneers of Cyberspace, found at www.eff.org/pub/Publications/
24. Erik Davis' Techgnosis,
p. 170 (Three Rivers Press, 1998).
25. From a transcript of an interview
of Bruce Damer by Erik Davis, found at www.digitalspace.com/papers/erikdavisinterview.html.
26. Erik Davis' Techgnosis,
p. 162 (Three Rivers Press, 1998).
27. Terence McKenna's "Psychedelic
Society," from Robert Forte's (ed.) Entheogens and
the Future of Religion, p.60 (San Francisco: Council on
Spiritual Practices, 1997).
28. Evidence that our species is capable
of living in harmony with both the environment and each other
may be seen at the annual Burning Man event. Each year, thousands
of people assemble in a Nevada desert location and erect a
temporary city, dedicated to radical self-expression and radical
self-reliance. They bring their own shelter as well as all
the food and water they will need for the entire event. When
they leave, the vast majority leave no trace that they were
there-taking their refuse with them and dismantling their
shelters. The Internet has been instrumental in the growth
of this event from 1,000 participants in 1993 to over 20,000
in 1999. For more information on Burning Man, see www.burningman.com.